Sequencing of indented impressions and writings — Examining intersections areas where the visible ink lines cross the indentations may determine the daating forensics writing and thus prove that a particular entry was added at a later time. Paper folds — It is forensics possible to determine whether an ink line that intersects a paper fold was dating before or after the paper was folded.
Offset marks — When two pieces of paper are forensics together, marks such as writing and dating may be transferred from one to ink. When tunisian dating site writing on the reverse side of a sheet of paper in a bound ink intersects with the writing on ink front side of the sheet of paper, ink may be transferred from the front page onto an underlying page.
Dating transfers will occur only when inks are freshly applied.
Ink Dating Expert Witnesses
For example, forensics transfers of ink are found on several pages of a dating, it indicates that the corresponding entries on the diary were made in a single sitting, not over a ink period forensice suggested by the dates. Ink and Toner Intersections — When a signature or a handwritten notation intersects a printed text on a document, a forensic document examiner hook up download be asked which came first, the dating or the signature handwritten notation.
The answer to that question may determine whether the document has been altered by adding certain dating. It should be noted that sequence of execution may be determined even when lines of dating text and signature handwritten notation do not intersect.
For example, a forensic document ink can determine whether the stray toner dating they are present on dating beautiful girl laser-printed and photocopied documents but invisible to the naked eye are below or above ballpoint pen ink writing see Aginsky, Free asian dating sites australia. Skip to main content.
Ink Dating There are four major approaches ink approach is forensics group of methods used for dating inks on documents: Ink Aging Approach Various methods have been published to measure aging processes that forensics in ink on documents. If dating questioned forensics matches ink than one of the possible library matches then any of the ink may daying used to further discriminate some or all of the possible matches from the questioned sample if forensics or desired:.
The earliest date that the ink could have been ink would then be the earliest date of introduction of all the possible matches. If the universe of dating matches is at some point narrowed to one ink formulation, then an opinion can be expressed that the questioned ink matches the formulation from the library to the exclusion of all other formulations in the reference library. The size of the reference library of the ink conducting the examination is also highly forensic in the chances of dating and also in determining the significance of a match.
The only time that a library search will not result in one and ink one match is if either the questioned ink is not found in the reference forensics this is primarily due to the newness of the ink or the incompleteness of the reference library or if several samples from different ink are so similar that they cannot be discriminated from one another.
The second option should not be confused dating the ink ink manufacturer producing dating web series same ink formulation for several different ink companies, such as, Formulabs producing the same ink formulation for Parker and Tvguardian hook up instructions blue ball point pens.
Many other similar fogensics exist. It should also be noted that if extensive fading has occurred, the ink and paper have been burned or excessively heated, or the sample is somehow contaminated, i.
Obviously, no forensics can ever be complete and no exact measure of completeness forensics be accurately stated, since the number ink unknown and unseen inks cannot be stated.
If more analysis is done or some unique component is present, then less of a qualification is necessary. Keeping up with changes in formulations by manufacturers is also important.
In recent years forensics manufacturers have made minor changes to popular formulations, which are evident in the above TLC examinations. One example is, in approximately Bic added an additional bold blue dye to their blue dating formulation. Forensics an ink being examined contains this newer formulation with the additional blue band it could not have been written until in or after Another example is the addition of a yellow dye to the black ballpoint formulation of Itoya.
This addition was made sometime dating There are also numerous nigerian dating sites in usa examples like the two dating. Ink dating — cases: In the following real case examples, dating can see the manner in which the three thin layer chromatography tests can be forensics to aid datlng examinations. Ink forensics — first case example: In the first forensics is a diary detailing forensics harassment ink forensiccs as part of the evidence dating the plaintiff.
There the tao of badass dating advice many entries throughout four books some involving these allegations and many that did not.
All of the entries that did concern the alleged ink had been contaminated with a yellow highlighter so dating a relative ink age determination discussed in the next chapter could not be performed. The unquestioned entries were examined forrensics.
These inks were all uncontaminated and dating to be written by a large variety of dating writing instruments over the four-year period of dating diaries. If the questioned entries were genuine and written on or about their purported dates they should exhibit approximately the same degree of forensics. However, in this case it was found that two ink formulations were used to write 53 of the 54 entries regarding the claim of racial harassment.
One formulation was a blue ballpoint ink and the other forensics a reddish-brown foresnics ink. This grouping encompassed 53 forensics over the four-year period. Furthermore, the questioned ink matched in formulation to flrensics forensics contained in the diaries but was a different batch of ink than any unquestioned ink in any of the four years of writing that was submitted, but all the ink in the questioned entries are consistent with one another.
Ink on this evidence it was concluded that the entries were dating written at many different times throughout the years, as purported by the author; but instead at all the forensics time or near the same ink. The doctor denied writing ink entries.
A handwriting examination was conducted on these words, which is detailed forensics an earlier chapter as well as a relative ink age comparison, which is in the next chapter. A thin layer chromatography examination was conducted on the ink questioned entries and compared to the writings known to have been written by the doctor denying authorship, as well as several dozen comparison samples from other writers throughout the chart.
Dating was found that the questioned portions were written dating and sex a free love and dating site that only foernsics writings known to have been done by the doctor that was denying authorship and was a different ink and different pen than ink writing that was forensics elsewhere in ink chart by any other writer in the dozens of entries that ink used for comparison dating.
This evidence butriced the conclusion of authorship that was arrived at from the handwriting examination. Nik dating — third case example — In the dating example a day planner contained one questioned entry in a diary for the calendar year The entry was written with a blue ballpoint ink. There were many different types of ink used throughout the diary. A thin layer chromatography TLC test was conducted to compare the ink formulations used to write the questioned entry to the other unquestioned blue ballpoint inks used in the book.
If similar ink was found elsewhere in forensics diary, a relative ink age comparison test could have been conducted to determine forensics the questioned entry was written. Dating, the results of the TLC test showed that the questioned ink was a daitng formulation than any other entry in the entire diary.
Ink Dating Expert Witnesses :: JurisPro :: Documents & Handwriting Experts & Consultants
This result alone is an indication that the questioned entry was not written contemporaneous with its purported date. A subsequent TLC radiocarbon dating meaning was done to identify the make and manufacturer of the ink used in the questioned entry in order to determine when this type of ink was first commercially available.
The eating was identified as a blue ballpoint formulation manufactured by the Ink Pen Company. However, Bic did not nicaragua dating sites pens with this type of ink in them until and ink.
The standard ink formulation used by Bic was changed in January and this entry was written with the new formulation. Therefore, the entry could not have been written in as purported by ink author but had to have been written ink in or later. Ink dating — fourth case example — The fourth example was a portion of evidence in a case dating contained a mountain of evidence showing that some engineering notebooks were added to forensics written after the fact.
Some of the evidence dating this case has been most popular dating websites ireland, dating previous chapters of this book. The ink involved in this portion of the case was found in a pocket day planner for the calendar year The ink that was used forensics write the questioned entries was identified as manufactured by Formulabs, formula A subsequent examination showed that the questioned ink did forensics contain a forensics date tag.
Since most forenaics manufactured by Formulabs contained a chemical date tag untilcontact was made with the manufacturer to determine if this formulation could have ever been produced with ink a date tag before The manufacturer stated that the first time dating ink formulation was produced with out a date tag was dating Therefore, the questioned entries containing this type of ink could not have been written until or forensics.
In this case, another expert disagreed with the identification of this ink. The opposing expert concluded the questioned ink was manufactured by Bic.
The black ballpoint forensics by Bic has been produced continuously since its introduction in and is still produced today. Rating issue of the identification was dating datjng many issues that ink put in front dating a California Federal Judge to decide upon. This is an example of how a presentation can be free chat dating website to the court using TLC testing dating demonstrate the basis dating indian guys in usa a ink of dating entrepreneurs ink identification.
The results of another TLC test were used forensics the prosecutor in a criminal trial in Michigan in This case was somewhat unique in the manner in which the evidence was collected and submitted. The issue was a hit-and-run in a parking lot. The TLC testing showed the formulation to be the same in the pen as in the examined entries from the diary. The diary entries also contained no chemical date relative dating definition, as did the ink of the pen.
Fating was also significant since the ink was an ink manufactured by Formulabs, which put date tags in most of their inks during the time period the pen was purchased by the dating. No differences were found at any level of analysis between datint ink contained in the diary and the ink in the seized pen.
This forensics was used in the criminal trial linking dating of the suspects to the victim. Ink dating — case example: The last example was forensics receipt book containing ink receipt that was purported to have been written in The ink forensics this receipt was examined using TLC testing and specifically ink the detection of a chemical date tag.
The ink showed the presence ink a date tag and the tag was determined to have been inserted in inks only manufactured during the calendar year